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Citation Style - APA

About Citing Books

For each type of source in this guide, both the general format and an example will be provided.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).

Numbers in brackets refer to specific pages in the manual.

Book with no Author

General Format  
 
Book title: Subtitle. (Year). Place of Publication: Publisher.
  
Example 
 
The business of roses. (1974). Los Angeles: Little and Long

Book with one Author or Editor (p. 203)

The general format below refers to a book with one author. 
 
If you are dealing with one editor instead of one author, you would simply insert the editor's name in the place where the author's name is now, followed by "(Ed.)" without the quotation marks.  The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
General Format 
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of
Publication: Publisher.
  
Example 
 
Beeson, M. (2007). Regionalism and globalization in East Asia: Politics, security and
economic development. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
      

Book with Two Authors or Editors (p. 202)

The general format below refers to a book with two authors. 
 
If you are dealing with two editors instead of two authors, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by "(Eds.)" without the quotation marks (see the Example).  The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
General Format  
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial.
Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.
  
Example 
 
Burley, J., & Harris, J. (Eds.). (2002). A companion to genethics. Malden, MA:
Blackwell.

Book with Three to Five Authors or Editors (pp. 177, 202)

The general format below refers to a book with three authors.  For a book with four or five authors, you would add the additional authors' names after the first three.
 
If you are dealing with a book that has three to five editors instead of authors, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by "(Eds.)" without the quotation marks (as per the example).  The rest of the format would remain the same.
  
General Format  
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.
Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year).  
Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.
  
Example  
 
Johnson, N. G., Roberts, M. C., & Worell, J. (Eds.). (1999). Beyond appearance:
A new look at adolescent girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological
Association.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book (pp. 202, 204)

Helpful Tip
     
     Only use this when citing an edited book. This is a book that has an editor, with articles
     or chapters written by different authors. Do NOT cite a chapter in a book that has been 
     entirely written by the same author(s) -- instead, cite the whole book.        
 
General Format 
 
Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year).
Article or chapter title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname
(Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. page range of article or chapter). Place
of Publication: Publisher.
  
Example
 
Lawrence, J. A., &  Dodds, A. E. (2003). Goal-directed activities and life-span
development. In J. Valsiner & K. Connolly (Eds.), Handbook of developmental
psychology (pp. 517-533). London: Sage Publications.

Article in a Reference Book (p. 202)

Helpful Tips
  • A reference book includes resources like encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, directories, etc.
  • Do not put the editor's name as the author. If the article has an author listed, then include that name. If the article does not have an author, then begin with the name of the article.
  
General Format  
 
 Author Surname [of Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title.
In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Reference book
title: Subtitle (# ed. edition, Vol. volume #, pp. page range of article).
Place of Publication: Publisher.
  
Example 1 -- entry/article with an author
 
Lindgren, H. C. (1994). Stereotyping. In Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 3,
pp. 468-469). New York: Wiley.

Example 2 -- entry/article with no author
 
Diabetes. (1997). In The World Book encyclopedia (Vol. 4, pp.70-91). London:
World Book, Inc.

E-Book (p. 203)

General Format  
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle [Version].
Retrieved from URL of the home page of the e-book provider.
  
Example 
 
Ochs, S. (2004). A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular
mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from
http://www.ebrary.com/

Edition of a Book other than the First (p. 203)

Second edition = 2nd ed.
Third edition = 3rd ed.
Fourth edition = 4th ed.
Revised edition = Rev. ed.
New edition = New ed.   
 
Do not include edition information if the book is a first edition.
 
General Format  
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle
(edition). Place of Publication: Publisher.
  
Example
 
Harris, L. A. (2001). Canadian copyright law (3rd ed.). Toronto: McGraw Hill
Ryerson.
  

A Translation (p. 204)

General Format  
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Translator
First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Trans.). Place of Publication: Publisher.
(Original work published Year).
  
Example 
 
Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott &
F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York: Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Government Publication (p. 205)

APA Citation Style does not have a separate category for government publications.  According to APA, government documents can be considered Books, Technical/Research Reports or Brochures.

Helpful Tips:

  • Treat a government document as a book, report, or brochure.
  • If a person is named on the title page, use her or him as author.
  • If no person is named, use the government agency, department, or branch as a group author (Ex. 31, p.205).
  • Give the name of the group author exactly as it appears on the title page. If the branch or agency is not well known, include its higher department first.
  • If the group author is also the publisher, just use the word Author after the location (p. 203).
  • If there is a series or report number, include it after the title (p. 205).
General Format  
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Government Name. Name of
Government Agency. (Year). Title: Subtitle (Report No. xxx [if available]).
Place of Publication: Publisher.
 
Example 1  
 
United Arab Emirates Federal National Council. (1997). The United Arab
Emirates constitution; the Federal National Council standing orders; the UAE
Parliamentary Group standing order. Abu Dhabi: Author.
 
Example 2 
 
Edwards, N., Sims-Jones, N., Hotz, S., & Cushman, R. (1997). Development
and testing components of a multifaceted intervention program to reduce the
incidence of smoking relapse during pregnancy and post-partum of both
women and their partners. Report prepared for Health Canada at the
Community Health Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Canada.
 
Example 3 
 
Ontario Ministry of Health. (1994). Selected findings from the mental health
supplement of the Ontario Health Survey. Ottawa, ON: Queen's Printer
for Ontario.
 
Example 4  
 
U. S. Food and Drug Administration/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.
(2004). Worsening depression and suicidality in patients being treated with
antidepressant medications: FDA public health advisory. Washington, DC: Author.
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