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Citation Style - APA

About Citing Art & Images

For each type of source in this guide, both the general format and an example will be provided.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).

Numbers in brackets refer to specific pages in the manual.

Image from a Printed Source

General Format 1 -- image from journal
 
Figure 1. Name of Image. From "Title of article," by Author First Initial
Surname, year, Title of Journal, Volume, page number. 

Example 1 -- image from journal
 
Figure 1. Schematic drawings. From "Visual experience enhances infants'
use of task-relevant information in an action task," by S. Wang and
L. Kohne, 2007, Developmental Psychology, 43, p. 1515.

General Format 2 -- image from book
 
Figure 2. Name of Image. From Title of Book (page number), by Author
First Initial Surname, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. 

Example 2 -- image from book

Figure 2. Sample model comparison table. From Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association (p. 146), by American
Psychological Association, 2010, Washington, DC: APA.

Image from an Electronic Source

General Format 
 
Figure 1. Artist Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork
[Format]. Retrieved from URL
  
Example 1
 
Figure 1. Mor, A. (1558). Portrait of a man in armor [Image]. Retrieved from
http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=789

Example 2

Figure 2. Netter, F. (2005). Heart [Electronic illustration]. Retrieved from
http://www.usip.edu/museum/netter_detail3.htm

Image with No Author/Artist

General Format 1 -- no author/artist
 
Figure 1. Title of the artwork [Format]. (Year) . Retrieved from URL
  
Example 1 -- no author/artist
 
Figure 1. Library of Congress - Reading Room [Photograph]. (n.d.).  Retrieved 
from http://www.nikonians.org/html/resources/reference_library/
lib-of-congress.html

General Format 2 -- no title or author/artist
 
Figure 2. [Description of image] [Format]. (Year) . Retrieved from URL

Example 2 -- no title, no author/artist
 
Figure 2. [Untitled image of a chest x-ray] [Photograph]. (n.d.).  Retrieved 
from http://www.heartfailurematters.org/EN/
UnderstandingHeartFailure/Pages/174.aspxy/

Email (p. 179)

Emails are not included in the reference list. Cite them in text only.  
 
General Format 
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication,
Month Day, Year)
     
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication,
Month Day, Year)
 
References:
Not included.
  
Example
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
(L. Hatcher, personal communication, March 27, 2009)
 
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
(L. Hatcher, personal communication, March 27, 2009)
 
References:
Not included.